The Ukrainian T-84 Oplot Main Battle Tank

T-84 is Ukrainian upgrade of the T-80UD. New welded turret and Shtora-1 countermeasures suite, 1,200 hp (895 kW) 6TD-2 diesel engine.

T-84U is Ukrainian upgrade of the T-84. New armoured side skirts, turret-conformal Kontakt-5 explosive reactive armour, auxiliary power unit, thermal imaging sight, satellite navigation, commander’s laser range-finder, muzzle reference system, and other improvements.

T-84 Oplot is T-84U with new western-style turret, but retaining the 125 mm gun. The Oplot tank features a new welded turret with separate crew and ammunition compartments with blowout panels on the ammunition compartment, a new bustle-mounted autoloader. A small number are in service with the Ukrainian Army.

The BM Oplot main battle tank is a tracked fighting vehicle that features a high firepower, reliable protection and high mobility.

The tank is intended to destroy all types of ground (floating) and low-flying low-speed ait targets under the conditions when the enemy fires back.

The vehicle can fulfil a wide range of combat missions under various climatic, weather and terrain conditions in the ambient temperature range of -40 to +55 degrees Centigrade, air humidity of up to 98% at temperature of +25 degrees Centigrade, height above sea level of up to 3000 m and with ambient air dust content available in real terrain conditions.

The key component parts of the tank that determine its capabilities are as follows:


FIREPOWER

Main Gun - Model KBA-3 Calibre 125 mm
Breech – type horizontal wedge-type, semi-automatic
Elevation/depression – angles (up to rigid stops). from -4 to +15 degrees
Horizontal aiming – (together with the tank turret) 360 degrees
Elevation -  0.2 mrad (APFSDS, HEAT, R=2000 m)
Azimuth - 0.2 mrad (APFSDS, HEAT, R=2000 m)

Coaxial machine gun – Model KT-7.62 (PKT) with removing powder gas
Calibre – 7.62 mm
Technical rate of fire – 700 to 800 rpm

Anti-aircraft machine gun system
Control
- remote
Control modes  – 1) automatic 2) stabilised in vertical plane
Armament model – KT-12.7
Calibre – 12.7 mm
Ammunition feed – belt-type
Technical rate of fire – 700 rpm
Number of cartridges in a belt – 150
Max firing range – at air targets 2000m / at ground targets 2000 m
Firing (aiming) angles – elevation  from -3 to 60 degrees / azimuth 360 degrees

LOADING SYSTEM

The loading system is a system intended to automatically load the main gun with ammunition of the available types and consisting of a conveyor, automatic loader and control system.

Type – electric hydraulic mechanical, with fixed loading angle
Number of projectile – types 4
Conveyor capacity – 28 rds
Conveyor rotation – in both directions
Conveyor rotation speed – 25-33 degrees per sec
Loading cycle durationс – minimum 7 sec (if the conveyor turns through 1 step) / maximum 12.5 sec (if the conveyor terns through 180°)
Loading cycle duration if using manual drives of the loading system – if the conveyor turns through 1 step within 1 minute / if the conveyor turns through 14 steps within 1.6 minutes

Removal of a used cartridge case stub with placing it into an empty loading tray without damaging air-tightness of the fighting compartment
Round ramming type tandem-type ramming projectile and charge together) during one cycle
Availability of back-up drives manual drives of conveyor, manual ammo feed mechanism, manual conveyor lock and manual gun lock
Conveyor replenishment time (in replenishment mode) 15-20 minutes.

Control system of the loading system installed in the tank is intended for:

Ensuring control over operation of mechanical and hydraulic units of the loading system
Ensuring control of the firing circuits of the main gun and coaxial machine gun
Storing information about the rounds placed into the loading system conveyor

INTEGRATED GUN-AND-FIRE CONTROL SYSTEM (IGFCS)

The IGFCS ensures the following:

Automatic generation, with subsequent introduction into the armament control devices, of super-elevation and lateral lead angles, with taking into account various deviations of the real firing conditions from the standard ones
Possibility for the commander to override the gunner and fire the main gun and coaxial machine gun from the commander’s station
Firing the anti-aircraft machine gun from the commander’s station accurate aiming from 0.05 to 1 degrees/sec – maximum at least 3 degrees/sec Azimuth: – minimum within 0.05 degrees/sec -accurate aiming from 0.05 to 1 degrees/sec – maximum at least 3 degrees/sec

Laser range-finder – target ranging limits 400-5000 m

Time required for preparation of the first shot of the gun - if the tank is stationary - 10-12 sec / if the tank is on the move - 10-15 sec
Gun firing range in all conditions of vehicle operation – APFSDS at least 2800m / HEAT, HE-FRAG - at least 2600 m

1G46M gunner’s sight

Type – Optical aiming device with two-axis independent stabilisation of the field of view, with laser range-finder and laser channel for missile guidance
Magnification – 2.7-12
Field of view - 4-20 degrees
Aiming angles of stabilised line of sight – elevation is -15 to +20 degrees / azimuth (8±1) degrees / together with the turret 360 degrees
Speed of aiming of the line of sight Elevation minimum within 0.05 degrees per sec / accurate aiming from 0.05 to 1 degrees per sec / maximum
at least 3 degrees per sec
Azimuth – minimum within 0.05 degrees per sec
Accurate aiming from – 0.05 to 1 degrees per sec
Maximum –  at least 3 degrees per sec
Laser range-finder – target ranging limits 400-5000m

PTT-2 thermal sighting system

The system is intended to observe, detect, recognise and identify targets and to deliver aimed fire from the main and coaxial machine gun under all conditions of vehicle operation.

Type thermal – monocular (with built-in micro-monitor)
Operational spectral wave band  – 8-12 micrometres
Fields of view – wide field of view 9×6.75 degrees / narrow field of view 3×2.25 degrees
Electronic magnification - 1.5×1.12 degrees
Operational ranges – Detection range (narrow field of view) at least 8000m / Recognition range (narrow field of view) at least 4500m / Identification range (narrow field of view) at least 2500 m

PNK-6 panoramic sighting system

The system is intended for:

1 – detection, recognition and identification of ground and air targets by day and at night from the tank commander’s station
2 – target ranging by means of the laser range-finder
3 – designation of targets to the gunner
4 – firing the main gun and the coaxial machine gun from the commander’s station in the override more
5 – firing the anti-aircraft machine gun
6 – Technical characteristics

Field-of-view stabilisation independent, in two axes:

Aiming angles of the stabilised line of sight – Depression at least 15 degrees / Elevation at least 60 degrees
Traverse - 360 degrees
Magnification of the day vision channel  – 1.2; 6; 12
Field of view of the day vision channel  – 30; 10; 5.5 degrees
Field of view of thermal channel – Wide field of view 9×6.75 degrees / Narrow field of view 3×2.25 degrees
Electronic magnification - 1.5×1.12 degrees
Spectral range of the thermal camera  – 8-12 micrometres
Range of detection of a TANK-type target – Through the visual channel at least 5500m / Through the thermal channel in the narrow field of view at least 8000m
Target ranging limits – 200-9500m

Main armament stabiliser

The main armament stabiliser ensures stabilisation and stabilised aiming of the armament in the vertical and horizontal planes.

Model 2E42M
Elevation drive – electric-and-hydraulic
Azumuth drive – electric-and-mechanical
Minimum – within 0.05 degrees/sec
Acurate aiming - 0.05-1 degrees/sec
Quick traverse - 35-40 degrees/sec

Tank’s guided weapon system

The system is intended to fire a guided missile through the tank gun barrel. The aiming is carried out by means of the gunner’s 1G46M sight.

Guided missile round - Izd. 621, 3UBK14, 3UBK20
Warhead type – HEAT
Missile guidance system - semi-automatic, using a laser beam
Max firing range – 5000m

TIUS-VM tank ballistic computer

Type – analogue-and-digital, with built-in test system and digital monitoring of parameters, automatic generation of super-elevation and lead angles for all types of projectiles and coaxial machine gun, with taking into account all topographic, meteorological and ballistic parameters that affect the accuracy of firing, with automatic registration and storing the parameters of the integrated gun-and-fire control system in various modes of operation.

Parameters that are automatically taken into account by the computer – target range, own tank movement, target speed, crosswind speed, gun trunnion axis cant, angular speed of the target (in horizontal and vertical planes), target position angle, tank movement attitude angle, relative speeds of the tank, muzzle velocity of the projectile.

Parameters that are introduced into the computer manually – air temperature, charge temperature, projectile muzzle velocity deviation due to variations inherent to different lots of ammunition, atmospheric pressure, barrel wear, individual jump angle.

Wind sensor – The sensor is intended to measure the crosswind speed and provide the relevant information to the tank ballistic computer.

Type capacity-type
Model DVE-BS
Crosswind speed measurement range within 20 m/s
Measurement error ±1 m/s

Tank speed sensor – The sensor is intended to measure the speed of tank’s own speed movement and providing the relevant information to the tank ballistic computer.

Tank speed measurement range at least 75 km/h
Measurement error within 0.5 km/h

Turret attitude sensor – The sensor is intended to measure the angular position of the turret relative to the hull (turret attitude angle) and provide the relevant information to the tank ballistic computer.

Turret attitude angle measurement range at least 360 degrees
Measurement error

Muzzle reference system – The system is intended to automatically measure the gun barrel bend and provide the relevant information to the tank ballistic computer.

Gun barrel bend measurement range (in vertical and horizontal planes) at least ±5 mrad
Measurement step within 0.1 mrad

Anti-aircraft machine gun control system

The system is intended to:

1. Ensure stabilisation and stabilised laying of the anti-aircraft machine gun in the vertical and horizontal planes
2. Automatically generate and introduce super-elevation and lateral lead angles with taking into account the deviation of the current firing conditions from the standard ones.


BALLISTIC PROTECTION

Main armour protection multi-layer (composite) - anti-projectile, combined, multi-layer, against penetration of HEAT and APFSDS projectiles (adapted for installation of explosive reactive armour array)

Built-in anti-tandem-warhead explosive reactive armour (BATW-ERA) - intended to increase the tank’s level of protection against kinetic energy (APFSDS) and chemical energy ammunition (HEAT, HESH, HEP), including ammunition with tandem warheads.

The armour protection fitted with BATW-ERA ensures protection against:

1. Hand anti-tank grenades, hand-held and stationary grenade launchers and recoilless guns (including ammunition with tandem warheads)
2. Anti-tank missiles of TOW-2, Milan and Shturm-S type
3. HEAT projectiles fired by 125 mm tank smoothbore guns
4. APFSDS projectiles fire by 125 mm and 120 mm tank guns
5. The BATW-ERA array consists of glacis module and side skirts installed on the tank hull, as well as modular elements placed on the outer perimeter of the front and side surfaces of the turret and containers installed on the turret roof.

The Nozh explosive reactive armour elements installed in special niches snap into action when hit by all types of hollow-charge warheads and sub-calibre armour-piercing projectiles.

The Nozh explosive reactive armour elements of the BATW-ERA do not detonate when hit by 12.7 mm bullets, 30 mm armour-piercing projectiles and shell fragments. The Nozh explosive reactive armour elements do not require any maintenance and are safe to deal with.

The Nozh explosive reactive armour elements are stored in containers or on the tank in heated premises or in the open air under a shed protecting them against precipitation and solar irradiation at temperatures from -50 to +55 degrees Centigrade. They can also be stored under the conditions of high humidity (100%) at temperatures of up to +35 degrees Centigrade.

The Nozh explosive reactive armour elements retain their qualities for 10 years, including storage in field conditions for up to 5 years and use on the tank for up to 3 years if the requirements for use, transportation and storage are met.

It takes the tank crew 2.4 to 2.6 hours to prepare the BATW-ERA array for combat operation within without the need to use any special contrivances (to do this, only the explosive reactive armour elements are to be installed).

Anti-mine protection

The anti-mine protection makes it possible to preserve the combat readiness of the crew and operability of the tank’s interior equipment in case an anti-tank mine explodes under the tank track (up to 10 kg TNT equivalent) or under the tank driver’s compartment bottom plate (up to 4 kg TNT equivalent).

Optronic countermeasures system

To improve the tank protectability, the Varta optronic countermeasure system is integrated in the tank.

The optronic countermeasure system provides:

1. Confusing of the guidance systems of ATGM by putting out laser jamming covering the horizontal plane of ±18° relative to the main gun tube and ±2° in the vertical plane.
2. Jamming of the ATGM guidance systems that use laser illumination of targets, semi-automatic laser guided homing projectiles as well as artillery systems equipped with laser range-finders by activating the remote fast-deploying aerosol screens in a sector of ±45° relative to the main gun tube
Optronic jamming station.

Aerosol screen laying system:

Mode of operation – Automatic, semiautomatic, manual
System reaction time in auto mode – less than 0.5 s
Qty of launchers - 12
Grenade caliber – 80 mm
Screen laying range – at least 50 m
time for laying the screen - not more than 3 s
effective screen duration - time 60 s

Crew’s collective protection system

The system ensures protection of the crew and interior equipment against effects of nuclear explosions, radioactive substances, toxic agents and biological warfare agents, as well as detection and suppression of fires in the crew compartment and power pack compartment.

NBC protection system

PRHR-M1 radiation and chemical agents detector.

PRHR-М1 (RCAD) is designed for continuous check-up, detection, signalling and control using actuators of protection means:

•During intensive gamma- radiation (nuclear blast)
•During gamma-radiation on the contaminated terrain followed by measuring the doze of radiation
•During detection of poisonous vapors in the air as a result of enemy actions

The instrument provides light and audible signals in case of detection poisonous agents in the air or gamma-radiation on the terrain as well as it generates commands for switching blower on and shifting over the valve of filtering ventilation unit (FVU) in the filtering position.

The instrument provides light and audible signals in case of detection powerful gamma radiation as well as commands for engine shutdown, shifting over the valve of FVU in the filtering ventilation mode, switching off the blower if it was on, followed by switching it on in 30 to 50 s.

The instrument provides checking its electrical circuits by generation commands (or without command generation) to actuators.

Range of measuring power of gamma radiation exposure - doze 0.2-150 R/h
Response time – Powerful gamma radiation within 0.1sec / gamma radiation of contaminated terrain within 10sec / detection the the air vapors of poisonous chemical agents (outside the vehicle) within 40sec.

Filter-ventilator unit

The filter-ventilator unit serves to clean external air from poisonous substances, radioactive dust, biological aerosols, to supply cleaned air into the crew compartment and create overpressure in it, as well as to ventilate the crew compartment during firing and fire fighting system comes into action.

Air consumption – via absorber filter at least 100 cubic metres per hour / bypassing the absorber filter at least 390 cubic metres per hour.

Filter-ventilator unit functions in 2 modes:

1. Ventilation mode. In this case blower delivers the dust-free air to crew compartment passing by the absorber filter
2. Filtering and ventilation mode. In this mode the blower delivers the clean air to the crew compartment through the absorber filter

Fire suppression system

The system with optical sensors and thermal sensors is designed for detection of fire sources in the crew compartment and power pack compartment and quick suppression, generation of commands for ventilation activation and removal thermal decomposition products from the crew compartment.

Methods of activation - Automatically, vehicle mains is on / Manually, panel buttons of the driving compartment and power pack compartment
Response time – Crew compartment, not more than 0.15s / Power pack, not more than 0.10s
Fire suppression is exercised by filling the free space of the compartment with extinguishing compound where fire takes place.

For this article proposed are the bottles of 2 litre capacity filled with fire-extinguishing compound Chladon 114B2 or other compound (as agreed) under pressure of 75 kgf/cm2. The bottles are equipped with high-acting heads and pressure alarms.

To provide article survivability, the system has two bottles for each compartment (crew compartment and power pack compartment).

Tank signature reduction means

Dazzle painting

Dazzle is intended for decreasing visibility of a tank and distortion of its image. Dazzle painting used is of three colors. The main color is green, auxiliary color is yellow-gray and additional color is black. Desert color is also used for painting.

Natural camouflage clamps

Clamps for natural camouflage are intended for fastening on the tank branches, grass and so on. There are 24 clamps in the tank set.

Thermal insulation

Thermal insulation is intended for decreasing range and probability of tank detection with heat reconnaissance apparatus and high-precision home warheads.

The thermal insulation consists of ETC top plate blowing channels and reflective screens.

Engine smoke generator

Engine smoke generator is intended for laying smoke screen with the diesel fuel. Fuel consumption 10 to 12 litres/min.

CAMOUFLAGE COVER KIT

The camouflage cover kit is intended to reduce:

1. The visual signature of the tank
2. The value of the tank’s effective surface of dispersion in order to decrease the distance of detection of the tank by means of radar-type detection stations and weapon guidance systems
3. The thermal irradiation of the heated outer surfaces of the tank in order to decrease the distance of detection of the tank by means of thermal imaging devices and to decrease the probability of ‘capturing’ the tank by infra-red homing warheads of anti-tank weapon systems (anti-tank guided missiles, mortar projectiles, artillery projectiles)
4. Level of reduction of power of the signal reflected from the camouflaged vehicle (in the band of 0.8-4 cm) within 18 dB
Reduction of probability of detection of the camouflaged tank by air-borne radar-type detection systems, at distances of 20 km or more (with the resolution on the terrain being 5-15 m), in comparison with the non-camouflaged tank at least by twice
Reduction of probability of ‘capturing’ the camouflaged tank by radar-type systems of weapon guidance, in comparison with the non-camouflaged tank at least by twice.
5. Probability of detection of the camouflaged vehicle on a airphoto (with the resolution on the terrain being at least 0.2 m) within 0.3
Distance at which the camouflaged vehicle cannot be recognised visually at least 1,000 m
Reduction of level of infra-red irradiation of the camouflaged vehicle, in comparison with the non-camouflaged vehicle at least by thrice
Colours being used protective green, grey-and-yellow, black

SELF-ENTRENCHING DEVICE

Self-entrenching device is intended for digging out individual trenches. It is mounted on the lower nose plate of the tank hull.

Blade is designed for cutting the soil, its displacement, bracings for keeping the blade in operational state during soil cutting, guiding planks – for keeping bracings and for blocking the blade from rotation and the clamp serves for keeping the blade in the move.

Self-entrenching device can take two positions - in stowing and in operation.

1. In stowing, the blade is fastened with two clamps to the lower plate of tank nose.

2. In operation position, the blade is lowered and when the tank moves forward, it cuts the soil by resting on the bracings. When tank moves backwards, the blade freely slips with its rear part along the soil surface without displacing the soil.

INSTALLATION OF MINE CLEARING SYSTEM

The tank provides for installation of track mine-clearing system (TMC) that allows to pave the way for tanks across mine fields.

To do that the tank hull is equipped with special weldings. Driver’s compartment provides place for connection to compressor and tank power supply for controlling the mine clearing system.

Individual set of SPTA is used for its assembly and maintenance. This set makes it possible to carry out the said work by tank crew.


POWER PACK

Power pack is a system of units and assemblies that includes the engine and its service system as follows: fuel system, air feed system, oil system, cooling system, exhaust and heating systems. Power pack is operational in the ambient temperatures from -40 to +55 degrees Centigrade.

Engine – 6ТD-2 engine is a multifuel, 6-cylinder, double-stroke liquid cooled diesel engine.

Maximum output using diesel fuel – 882 kW (1200 hp)
Max. torque at diesel fuel at engine - crankshaft rotation speed at (1600±10) rpm 3135 N (320 kgf·m)
Rotational speed of the crankshaft at max. power – 2600 rpm
Specific fuel consumption at maximum power mode 211-231 g/kW·h - (155-170 g/hp·h)
Mass of the dry engine - 1180/1240 kg
Dimensions – length 1602mm / width  955mm / height 581mm

The engine is adapted for automatic transmission control. Regulator is equipped with the rack travel sensor of fuel pumps. Diesel has speed measuring device for recording the crankshaft rotational speed.

In electro-mechanical rotational speed governor used is a special mechanism restricting fuel delivery in the range of speeds from 800 to 2000 rpm. Due to that we provide reduction of optical density of exhaust gases at starting and free acceleration modes.

In this fuel apparatus used are nozzles with locking needle.

The engine consists of crankshaft mechanism, crank cases, cylinders, shifting over mechanism, compressor, gas turbine and hang-up assemblies: starter-generator, water pump, air compressor TK-150, regulator, fuel priming pump, fuel filters, high pressure fuel pumps, oil centrifugal filter, air distributor and other units.

Engine cylinders are arranged horizontally. Each cylinder has inlet ports and outlet ports. Inlet ports serve for blowing and filling the cylinders by air, outlet port provide exhaust gas withdrawal. Improved configuration of the inlet ports provides improvement of efficiency due to perfection of gas exchange process and mixture formation. Exhaust gases leaving the cylinders flow through the outlet collector to gas turbine.

Each cylinder holds two oppositely moving pistons. When they move to each other as close as possible formed is combustion chamber. Each piston is connected with its own crankshaft by the connecting rod. These pistons making their reciprocal motion open and close inlet and outlet ports and carry out the function of gas distribution mechanism. In these pistons used are the improved needle bearing of the upper head of the connecting rod and making it possible to increase maximum burning pressure, service life and reliability.

The compressor of inlet air provides improvement of the diesel parameter due to more efficient compression process attained by improved aerodynamics of flowing part.

Gas turbine converts the energy of exhaust gases into mechanical energy for driving the compressor.

The engine is mounted in the power pack compartment. Its installation does not require any adjustment. Axles of the engine crankshafts are arranged laterally to longitudinal tank axle.

The engine is fastened in three places. Two yokes fasten it in the rear part and pivoting bearing fastens it in the front.

Fuel system

1. Fuel tanks
2. Surge tank
3. Fuel distributing valve
4. External tank switch-off valve
5. Fuel priming pumps, fuel filling filter
6. Fuel pre-filter
7. Fuel fine filter
8. Centrifugal fuel pump
9. Fuel filling pump with a valve
10. Air separating tank
11. Reverse valve
12. Fuel gauges
13. Pipe-lines

Engine fuel is stored in the fuel tanks with a total capacity of 1,140 litres.

The following fuel is used - diesel fuel, jet engine fuel, petrol and mixtures of these type of fuel.

The system ensures supply of fuel to the engine from either of the fuel tank groups separately or from both of the fuel tank groups simultaneously.

The fuel system also ensures fuel supply to the auxiliary power unit, which is located on the right fender, by means of the pipe-lines going through the vehicle hull side.

Fuel can be replenished through the filling necks of the fuel tanks, as well as by using the filling pump.

Capacity of the internal fuel tanks – 575 lt
Capacity of the external fuel tanks – 570 lt
Capacity of the additional fuel drums – 380 (190х2) lt

Air system

The air system of the engine is intended to remove dust from the air that comes into the engine. Air purification is performed in three stages with ejection-type removal of dust. The first stage of air purification is performed at a bunker provided with an inertia grid, while the second and third stages, at a two-stage cassette-type air cleaner.

The system consists of an air cleaner with a dust removal ejector, air intake bunker with a inertia grid and ejector that removes dust from the inertia grid.

The air cleaner is a two-stage device: The first stage ensures a preliminary removal of dust from air with the efficiency of 99.78 %. After going through the second stage of air purification, the air is purified with the efficiency of up to 99.85 %. The cassettes are the second stage of the air cleaner.

Engine lubrication system

Lubrication system is intended for oil arrangement in the tank, oil supply to the engine, cleaning and cooling of the oil used in the tank.

Engine lubrication system includes internal oil tank with intake filter; oil radiator; oil pump; priming pump; two exhaust pumps; centrifugal oil filter; oil-gauge, and pipelines.

Lubrication system – circulating, performed on the dry crank case principle.

A 105-litre oil tank is installed in the front part of engine compartment, between the bulkhead and the engine. Oil intake for engine supply is performed from the middle compartment, which is filled with oil from other compartments.

The system is equipped with minimum oil pressure sensor.

Cooling system Cooling system is liquid, high temperature system of closed type with forced circulation of coolant and ejection cooling of radiators, it is designed to provide thermal operation mode of the engine. Coolant priming through the engine (at engine crankshafts rotation speed 2600 rpm) is not less than 38 m3/hour. Refilling capacity – 94 litres. .

Cooling system includes

1. Ejector
2. Engine water pump
3. Radiators
4. Surge tank
5. Steam-admission valve
6. Preheater with air-heater
7. Engine inner chambers
8. Cooling belts of gas duct joint
9. Engine water dump valve
10. Preheater water dump valve and pipe lines. Main engine cooling system is connected to the APU, which is located on the right fender and provides cooling for operating APU.

Water radiators provide heat abstraction from coolant, and installed in the ejector box of engine compartment roof.

The system is equipped with coolant max temperature indicator and coolant level indicator, which give signal, when the coolant reaches maximal temperature.

The effectiveness of cooling system is regulated with the amount of gases, passing the ejector.

Exhaust system

The system provides cooling outer airflow through radiators, using the energy of engine exhaust gases and exhaust gases release.

The system includes compensator; gas duct; adapter, weld to the right side of the engine compartment roof, together with by-pass gas duct, receiver with nozzle device and ejector setting.

To provide the cooling of the gas duct joint there are water sleeves with circulating coolant.

Heating system

Heating system is the part of cooling system and is used to warm up the engine and the oil before engine start, as well as for keeping the engine ready to start at cold seasons.

Warming up of the engine is performed with the help of warmed by preheater coolant. Exhaust gases of preheater warm oil in the engine oil tank.

Heating system includes - preheater, engine oil tank flue tube and pipe lines.

Preheater is used for coolant warming and providing its circulation through the cooling system pipes at engine warming up, and oil warming by engine oil tank exhaust gases.

Engine starting system

Starting methods:
Main – by electric starter from four storage batteries
Auxiliary - by compressed air from air bottles
Combined - electric starter from SB and compressed air simultaneously
From outer source - electrical energy or compressed air of similar vehicle is used
Push starting used - when there is no chance to start the engine with all the above mentioned methods
Means to facilitate the starting

REVERSIBLE (MULTIPLE REVERSE SPEED) TRANSMISSION

Reversible transmission is intended to increase the tank speed at forward motion and reverse movement. The enhanced gears of reverse movement provide when necessary quick change of position in combat conditions without tank turning.

Reversible transmission consists of two gear boxes with coaxially attached reversible final drives.

Speeds at various gears:

Forward gears Reverse gears
Number of gear Speed (km/h) Number of gear
1 8,4 Reverse 1 10,7
2 15,7 Reverse. 2 19,8
3 19,8 Reverse 3 25,0
4 24,8 Reverse 4 31,3
5 34,2
6 47,2
7 69,3
Reverse 4,8

COMPLEX MOVEMENT CONTROL SYSTEM

The complex movement control system (CMCS) is designed to ensure the tank mobility and controllability (=agility) under different road conditions as well as to minimize the driver’s fatigue.

The CMCS fulfills the following functions:

1. Tank take-off and forward/reverse motion
2. Automatic gear shifting depending upon road conditions
3. Smooth change of the tank turning radius
4. Manual (overriding) transmission control mode within 6 forward and 4 reverse gears
5. Locking in case of driver wrong actions
6. Built-in check of the movement control equipment

Technical characteristics of the CMCS:

1. Automated operation mode
2. Number of gear Speed (km/h)
3. Forward 1-7 0-69,3
4. Reverse 1-4 0-31,3
5. Manual control mode
6. Forward 1…6 0…69,3
7. Reverse 1…3 0…25,0

RUNNING GEAR

Running gear consists of track mover and cushion system.

Track mover with rear placement of drive sprockets consists of two idler wheels with track tensioning mechanisms, two sprocket wheels, two tracks, twelve road wheels, ten supporting wheels.

Cushion system consists of twelve personal torsion suspensions and six hydraulic telescopic shock-absorbers.

Idler wheel is made of cast steel / Track tensioner is crank-type, with hour-glass worm pair / Diameter of idler wheel is 514 mm.

Drive sprocket consists of cast disc, two gear rings, attached with bolts and nuts, and restraining disc, that provides firm gearing of track with sprocket wheel.

To provide firm gearing while moving along the marshland and alike road conditions, there is a sprocket wheel cleaner installed aboard the main battle tank.

Diameter of sprocket wheel gearing 630mm.

Road wheels are twodiscs with outer shock absorption made of high quality rubber, that allows tank to move on high speed for a long period of time. Discs of the road wheels are made of high-strength aluminium alloy, they are attached to the hub with the help of bolts, which allows to change them quickly when damaged.

Road wheel diameter – 670mm
Width of road wheel tyre – 170mm

Track with replaceable rubber pads includes parallel rubber-metal joint, rubberized running-track and removable rubber shoes; allows the tank to move on the asphalt road without damaging it. The removable rubber shoes are attached to the track grooves and locked with spring lock. Due to the customer requirements the SPTU can include steel grousers to enhance cohesion with the ground, when moving on ice or ground with low bearing capacity.

Number of track-links in the track – 80pcs
Track step - 164mm
Track width – 580 or 600mm

Track support rollers are single-tyre, consist of rim with tyre made of high quality rubber, seals and fastening elements.

Track support roller - outer diameter 225mm
Track support roller – width 125mm

Torsion bars are high quality, torsion strength is 14000 kgf/cm2, provide full suspension movement of 410 mm. Torsion bars are located from side to side, with mutual displacement 100 mm.

Shock absorbers are hydraulic, telescopic, double-acting, installed on first, second and sixth suspensions. Shock absorbers use sealing made of heat-resistant rubber, that provide firm sealing at temperature up to 220°С. Besides, there is a heat restraint installed in the shock absorber, which prevents the shock absorber from heating higher than 220°С.

Working stroke – 225mm
Piston diameter – 90mm
Piston-rod diameter – 40mm
Maximum direct stroke resistance - 15 ton-force

DEEP FORDING EQUIPMENT

Deep fording equipment (DFE) provides for negotiating the water obstacle up to 1.8 m deep without special preparation of the tank («Brod» mode) and water obstacles up to 5 m after installation of special removable assemblies of DFE («PH» mode), as well as engaging in combat after negotiating the obstacle without any special works that require the crew to leave the tank. DFE set includes removable and stationary assemblies.

Removable assemblies include:

1. Air supply pipe
2. Exhaust pipe with wire rope to disengage the lock
3. Nose bilge pump valve
4. Coax MG port sealing
5. Gun muzzle end sealing
6. Rope with caps for sealing the AIU intake valves of PRHR-M1
7. Back-up communication system, input with signal lamp. Air intake pipe is used for supply of air to the engine of the completely tight tank while moving under water.

Exhaust pipe is used for exhausting the fumes to atmosphere while moving under water at the depth of 5 m to exclude penetration of water into exhaust channel when the engine is shut off.

Nose bilge pump valve prevents the water from penetrating into the tank through the water discharge port with the inoperative pump.

Signal lamp is used to mark the place of the tank while moving through the water obstacle in night conditions.

The set of removable equipment is supplied to the tank in a separate box bearing the tank number.

In view of using the DFE while negotiating the water obstacles at the distance of not more than a day’s range, the DFE removable equipment may be stowed on the tank.


OBSERVATION AND ORIENTATION DEVICES

Day vision devices

TNPO-160 vision block - Prism with heating of inlet and outlet windows

commander’s station – 1 unit is installed and 1 unit is available in SPTA kit
driver’s station – 3 units are installed in shaft and 1 unit is available in SPTA kit
Magnification – 1
Field of view – in elevation 5dg / in azimuth 36dg
Angle of vision in azimuth - 78dg
Periscopicity - 160mm

TNP-165A vision block – Type Prism

Commander’s – 2 in the hatch cover
Gunner’s – 3 in the turret and 1 in SPTA kit
Magnification - 1
Field of view – in elevation 8dg / in azimuth 36dg
Angle of vision in azimuth – 74dg
Periscopicity – 165mm

Hydraulic pneumatic cleaning is designed for cleaning of vision devices and protection glass from mud by fluid and from dust and snow – by air.

TVN-5 driver’s night vision device - Periscopic, binocular, with image intensifier of the 2nd generation
Number – 1
Magnification – 1x
Field of view – in the vertical plane 27dg / in the horizontal plane 36dg
Distance of vision of the flat road – in the passive mode at NNIL from 3·10 -3 to 5·10 -3 lx at least 180m / in the active mode at NNIL of at least 3· 10 -3 lx at least 80m.

Orientation device

Type – directional gyro Model GPK-59


TIUS-NM NAVIGATION SUPPORT SYSTEM

The navigation support system (NSS) ensures the solution of the following tasks:

1. Determination of own coordinates X, Y and the bearing grid angle a in the rectangular coordinate system using the SN-3700 radio-navigation equipment (RNE);
2. Generation, transmission and receipt of commands with coordinates of destination points;
3. Gathering of information about subordinates location;
4. Input, storage and processing of route points (up to 50 pcs)and movement along the route, number of control points for each route up to 50;
5. Information, transmission and receiving of telecode (textual) messages via the radio channel;
6. Indication at the driver’s station of information of direction and value of angle of turn to the point of destination.

Accuracy (standard deviation) of the tank location coordinates determination when operating on the following systems signals:

1. GPS NAVSTAR 40 m
2. GLONASS 30 m
3. GPS NAVSTAR/GLONASS 20 m
4. Quantity of routes being set Up to 10
5. Quantity of control points for each route Up to 50
6. Gathering of information about the subordinate tanks location, transmission of destination points coordinates and textual information is provided in 7. The units up to the tank battalion level inclusive Yes
8. Time of transmission and receipt of information in digital radio channel and range of communication To be determined by specifications of standard means of communication.
9. Accuracy of presenting the current time (with allowance for the correction for the zone time) 1s
10. Time of readiness for operation, max – under the “cold” start 180s / under the “hot” start 15s
Built-in control system – Yes

1KPI commander’s information panel is designed for input by means of key-boards into the system of initial settings, codes, commands, requests, destination and control points coordinates, as well as telecode messages that are generated from the Russian language symbols or Latin alphabet and digital symbols on the display of alphabet-digital and graphic information, received or input from outside through the radio station or from navigation equipment. It is also used to set the status of the tank – the commander of the respective level (up to the battalion commander) or subordinate (linear) of the respective unit.

1KBI-N information unit provides for:

1. Reading of input data and commands from 1KPI panel keyboard and its processing
2. Exchange of information ans commands with NSS and radio station
3. Processing of information received from NSS and radio station

solution of tasks of:

1. Computing the current coordinates and directional angle
2. Receipt and transmission of commands with coordinates of point of destination
3. Gathering of information on location of subordinates
4. Input, storage and operation of route points
5. Receipt and transmission of telecode messages
6. Indication of angle of turn to the driver
7. Controlling the indicator (screen) of 1KPI panel (indication of information and command messages). 1KVI panel is designed for providing the information for the driver about the value and direction of the tank angle of turn to the point of destination.

SN-3700 radio-navigation equipment provides for continuous monitoring of the tank coordinates, its route (only on move) and time according to radio signals of navigation space craft of GLONASS and GPS NAVSTAR via open codes at any point of the globe at any point of time and any meteo conditions.

Remarks:

1.The data on the own tank position, subordinate tanks, points of destination and route points are displayed on the screen of 1KPI in text of graphic format (at the discretion of the commander)
2.VHF radio stations are used in NSS for exchange of commands, navigation and telecode information via digital radio channel


COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT

VHF radio set – Type VHF, Tx/Rx Model R-030U
Operation frequency band - 30-110 MHz
Nominal output power – 30 W (at reduced power 1 W)
Max. communication range in - the cross-country 20-25 km
Transmitter operation modes – 1.Fixed frequency / 2.Pseudo-random operation frequency tuning (POFT), average number of band tuning is 312,5 per second

Modulation type 1.F3 – for fixed frequencies
2.F1 – for (POFT)

Number of pre-fixed frequencies 1.For fixed frequencies – 16 frequencies
2.For POFT – 16 channels

Operation modes:

1.Simplex
2.Semi-duplex
3.Duty reception
4.Simplex in one channel and duty reception in another channel

Transmitted information:

1.Analog (audio) information providing code conversion (technical concealment)
2.Digital information
3.Short alpha-numeric code messages
4.Individual, group and tone calls

Information transmission speed in the digital channel 1 200, 2 400, 4 800, 9 600, 16 000 bit/s
Built-in test system Available, provides accuracy replacement up to typical component

HF radio set – Type HF, Tx/Rx Model R-163-50K
Operation frequency band – 2000-29999 kHz over a step of 1 kHz
Number of pre-fixed frequencies – 16
Communication range – vertical rod antenna 250km / inclined rod antenna 250km / dipole antenna 350km

Crew intercom system

Model – AVSK-1
Number of subscribers – 4, taking in view a socket of troop commander
Headset – ShSh1


AUXILIARY POWER UNIT

Diesel-electric auxiliary power unit is designed to supply power of tank users while at stop and with the main engine shut-off. The auxiliary power unit is arranged on the right fender in tight armoured box and connected to electrical, fuel and main engine cooling systems.

Components

Diesel 468A
DC starter-generator
Fuel consumption at max output mode, max 4 kg/hr
Time of start of drive engine without pre-start preparation, max30s
Continuous operation time, min 24hr


GENERAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT

Type of scheme – DC, single line (for emergency lightening – two line)
Mains voltage – is 22.5 – 28.5 V
Mains protection system – Automatic circuit breakers and fuses

Storage batteries

Type – Lead-acid battery
Model – 12SТ-85
Quantity – 4
Electric capacity of one battery – 85 A·hr
Total electric capacity of batteries - 340 A·hr
Rated voltage of a battery – 24V

Relay-regulator Model – RN505M1

Rotary junction box Model - VKU-1

DC starter-generator Model – SG-18-1S


DRIVER’S DIGITAL INSTRUMENTATION PANEL

The driver’s digital instrument panel is intended to control the tank’s systems:

1. Operation of the pre-heater
2. Main engine pre-starting and starting
3. Traffic lights operation
4. Emergency warning
5. Indication of current parameters of the engine and transmission
6. Protection of the engine against wrong actions of the driver during engine pre-starting and starting
Overall dimensions – 640x390x235mm / Weight 22 kg

Components of the driver’s digital instrument panel:

1. Engine and transmission current parameter indication panel
2. Engine pre-starting and starting control panel
3. Air intake device pipe, bilge pump and directional gyro control panel
4. Traffic lights control panel
5. Fuel and oil level indication panel
6. Transmission control equipment protection and switching-on unitT

The driver’s digital instrument panel is connected to the vehicle mains (V/DC) and ensures the following:

1. Displaying information about the parameters of the vehicle with the aid of the current parameter indication panel (vehicle speed, vehicle mileage, engine crankshaft rotation speed, engine coolant temperature, engine oil temperature, engine oil pressure, transmission oil pressure, engine operation time, vehicle mains voltage, value of the currant in the circuit of charging/discharging the storage batteries)
2. Odisplaying information about the amount of fuel and oil available in the vehicle
3. Control of the actuating mechanisms (by means of using relevant buttons and toggle switches)
4. Automated procedure for preparation of the engine for starting
5. Control of the outer lighting/warning devices (headlights, marker lights, turning lights, horn signal)


AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM OF THE CREW COMPARTMENT

The air conditioning system is intended to ensure crew comfort in the crew compartment by means of cooling, drying, heating and ventilating the air in the compartment.

The air conditioning system consists of two air conditioners (one is installed in the tank hull, and the other, in the tank turret). This approach makes it possible to ensure efficient processing of air in both the driver’s compartment and the fighting compartment of the tank.

Either of the air conditioners comprises a compressing-and-condensing unit, air processing unit, power unit, control panel, connecting pipes and electrical cables.

The air conditioner is a steam-compressing unit, which is installed in the turret or in the hull of the tank and consists of two main units: compressing-and-condensing unit and air processing unit. The compressing-and-condensing unit is connected to outside air, while the air processing unit sucks in and then lets out the air of the crew compartment. The compressing-and-condensing unit is water-tight, so there is no need for any preparation of the unit before water obstacle crossing.

Heating is ensured by installing electric heaters in the air processing unit.


TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Total weight - 51ton’s
Crew – 3
Power-to-weight ratio - at least 18.2 kW (24.7 hp/t)
Specific ground pressure – within 0.097 MPa (0.97 kgf/cm2)
Operating temperature - range -40 to +55 °C
Main dimensions – Length gun forward 9720mm / gun rearward 9750mm / hull 7075mm / Width without removable side skirts 3400mm / with removable side skirts – 4176mm
Length of track on ground - 4290mm
Ground clearance - 470-500mm
Track - 2800mm
Operational data (single tank in various terrain conditions)
Movement speed – Average (on dry natural soil road) 40-45km/h / Maximum (on hard-surface road) 70km/h
In reverse gear – Minimum 4.8km/h / maximum 31.3km/h
Fuel consumption per 100km – on dry natural soil road 325-370lt / on hard-surface road up to 300lt
Cruising distance – on dry natural soil road by using fuel from main fuel tanks 350km / by using fuel from additional fuel tanks 450km
Gradient – 32 degrees
Side slope – 25 degrees
Trench – 2.85m
Obstacle – 1m
Deep fording – (without preparation) 1.8m
Crossing water obstacles by using deep water fording equipment – depth 5m / width no limits
Ammunition for the main gun - 46 (28 in automatic loader)
Gun ammunition types - HE-FRAG, APFSDS, HEAT, GM
KT-7.62 machine gun - 1250rds (250×5)
KT-12.7 machine gun - 450 rds (150×3)
AKS submachine gun - 450 rds
F-1 hand grenades – 10
Aerosol grenades – 12