The Russian 9K330 TOR & 9K331M Tor-M1 SAM Series

The Russian 9K330 TOR & 9K331M Tor-M1 SAM Series is an all-weather low to medium altitude, short-range Self-Propelled Surface to Air Missile system designed for engaging aircraft, cruise missiles, precision guided munitions and unmanned drone aircraft.

Development started in February 1975 as a successor to the 9K33 Osa (NATO reporting name SA-8 “Gecko”) in the Soviet Union, under the designation 9K330, the system is commonly known by its NATO reporting name, SA-15 “Gauntlet”.

After a period of testing and evaluation between December 1983 and December 1984, the land based system was accepted into service on March 19th 1986. Production started around 1990 with IEMZ Kupol, with upgraded variants Tor, Tor-M, Tor-M1, Tor-M1T, Tor-M2, Tor-MTA, Tor-MTB.

The vehicle is classed as a TLAR – Transporter, Launcher, And Radar unit, which is similar to a TELAR, however the missiles are not required to be erected into a launch position. The 9K330 is based on the GM-355 chassis manufactured by MMZ, the Tor-M1 using the improved GM-5955.

Tor’s TLAR features a turret with a top mounted target acquisition radar, and frontal tracking radar, with 8 ready to fire missiles stored vertically between the two radars. The target acquisition radar is a 3D F band pulse doppler radar, equipped with a truncated parabolic antenna, which provides a maximum detection range of 25 km. This is controlled by a digital fire control system, which allows detection of up to 48 targets and the tracking of ten at any one time.

Typically, a battery of four Tor vehicles is accompanied by the mobile Ranzhir-M (Russian: “Ранжир-М”) command centre.

The Russian 9K330 TOR & 9K331M Tor-M1 SAM Series Specifications (Tor-M1)

Weight 34 tonnes
Length 7.5m
Width 3.3m
Height 5.1m (radar mast un-stowed)
Crew 3 + Driver
Primary armament 9M330, 9M331
Engine 830hp V-12 diesel
Suspension torsion bar
Ground clearance 450mm
Operational range 500km
Speed 65 km/h


9K330 “Tor” with the 9M330 missile, minimum range 2km, introduced in 1986
9K331 “Tor-M” with the 9M331 missile, minimum range 1.5km, introduced in 1991, with greatly improved missile accuracy and the ability to engage two targets simultaneously
9K331M “Tor-M1”, “Tor-M1T” with the 9M331 missile, minimum range 1.5km
9K332 “Tor-M2”, “Tor-MTA”, “Tor-MTB”, “Tor-MTS” with the 9M331 missile and a new surveillance radar, minimum range 1km


Cyprus – 6
Egypt – 16
Greece – 25
Iran – 29
Myanmar – 85
Russia – 120
Ukraine – unknown
Venezuela – 12 on order