The US M113 APC Series & Family Variants

Production Models
Production Variants
Operators Numbers
Operators Upgrades
Combat History

The US M113 APC Series & Family Variants has had a huge impact among many of the Armies of NATO members and Western friendly Countries. With a staggering 76,000 built, the vehicle can be found as the work horse of many mechanised units on every continent in the world and has to be in the top 10 of Armoured Vehicles of all time.

The M113’s success started in the 1950’s to meet the requirements set by the US Army for an air-deployable vehicle that was amphibious and had good mobility. This obviously meant the vehicle wasn’t heavily armoured so could only withstand 7.62mm fire. They had to be a simple design so as to be able to accept adaptation for other roles and future upgrades.

In January 1956, US firm FMC (Food Manufacturing Company) were award the contract to develop two prototypes of the same vehicle (Armoured Personnel Carrier), one constructed of steel (designation T117) and one constructed in aluminium (designation T113). The T117 was dropped and development on the T113 continued.

So why aluminium?

Both steel and aluminium are metallic materials, however aluminium is a lighter material because its not as dense as steel so you need three times the thickness of steel to offer the same level of protection as steel. However aluminium is more stiffer than steel, so doesn’t need the steel bracing used in steel constructed vehicles, which means an aluminium vehicle is lighter, has more internal room and a lower profile making it a harder target to hit.

The M113

The T113 continued in two development projects, the E1 model which used a petrol engine and the E2 which had a diesel engine.

The T113E1 entered production with FMC in 1960, under the designation M113, which a Chrysler engine and transmission. An order for 900 vehicles was placed.

The M113A1

The T113E2 (diesel engine) entered production replacing the E1 in 1964 under the designation M113A1.

Apart from obvious reduced cost of diesel over petrol, diesel engines require lesser parts and produce more torque, which means the ability to turn drive the drive sprocket (the wheel with the teeth that catch the track and pushes the track to make the vehicle move) with lower revs. The obvious use of diesel is its safety factor, that is its harder to ignite diesel than petrol (you require a higher temperature) and it takes longer to burn. This means if the vehicle is struck and the fuel tanks penetrated, the vehicle doesn’t instantly ‘cook off’ so there is lesser chance the vehicle is destroyed and if needed too, the crew have time to evacuate.

The M113A2

This vehicle entered production in the same year I was born, 1978. It focused on a new engine cooling system (they are air-cooled) engine radiator and suspension. A total of 2660 A2’s were built and all of the previous 20,000 vehicles were upgraded to the A2 variant.

The M113A3

The A3 entered production in 1987. It featured not only a new engine but improvements in protection. There is a misconception that High Explosive are designed in the Armoured Fighting Vehicle world to rip a vehicle apart. The truth is that they are designed to explode on impact with the external skin of the AFV surface and send a shockwave through the external skin blowing off a section of the inside of the skin, which then fly’s around the inside of the vehicle carving the crew and infantry up and can strike explosive material cooking it off. This was a problem in many AFV’s, so Armies started installing spall liners. These are robust mats containing hardened materials like Kevlar, attached to the inside of the external skin, so as to catch the blown off section and preventing it from doing the above mentioned damage to the vehicle and personnel.

As previously stated about the difficulties of igniting diesel, Vietnam War showed that lightly armoured vehicles were highly susceptible to being attacked by the highly deployed RPG-7 hand held shaped charges infantry weapon, so the M113 need a way of defending itself against this and chose to use the advantages of diesel.

The Fuel tanks were externally mounted (so they were flat and long) so as to cover the sides of the vehicle and then a new exterior skin across the fuel tanks was added. This meant that if struck by a RPG-7, it detonated on the new shin and the copper jet had further to travel through the fuel tanks and then would hit the spall liners, by which point the sting of the weapon had been taken out.

It uses a rear hydraulic ramp set in the rear of the vehicle for access (this has a door encase of failure) with a large roof hatch above the rear section. The driver sits on the left with his own hatch and the engine (has six forward and two rear gears) to his right with the vehicle commander in the centre of the vehicle.

The vehicle is powered in the water by its tracks. A trim is erected at the front and bilge pumps are activated to pump out any water taken aboard.

Many countries operate, just like the USA, a mixture of A2 and A3 vehicles, as the US didn’t bring all its A2 variants up to the A3, like they had previously done to all other variants to what was at the time the new A2.

The RISE (Reliability Improvements for Selected Equipment) package includes a 275 HP turbocharged 6V53T Detroit Diesel engine coupled to a 4-speed hydrostatic transmission and greatly improved driver controls (new power brakes and conventional steering controls).

M113 Gavin

“The idea of calling the M113 APC the M113 Gavin is not the result of some spontaneous groundswell of opinion from the troops in the field. Nobody, but nobody called the M113 APC the M113 Gavin before a self-proclaimed military strategist, ex-Marine, Army National Guardsman and M113 uber-enthsiast Mike Sparks (unofficially known as “Sparky”) began promoting the idea during the mid-1990’s as part of his personal plan to reform the U.S. Military by re-equipping it with old M113’s and 106mm recoilless rifles. The Gavin name in particular was not chosen as an altruistic nod to an old war hero but rather as a shallow attempt to confuse people into thinking the M113 is in fact some sort of Airborne Infantry Fighting Vehicle”.


The US Firm FMC were the original manufacturer for the US Army and international sales, however FMC transferred the M113’s production to its newly formed defence subsidiary, United Defence. In 2005 United Defence was acquired by BAE.

Licensed manufacturers –

Belgium Firm BMF for the Belgium Army.

Italian Firm Oto Melara for the Italian Army and international sales.

The US M113 APC Series & Family Variants (As developed by FMC for US Army and International sales)

The US M113 APC Series & Family Variants

APC – Dependant on the country operating the vehicle, he has a traversable Machine Gun (the most common including the USA, is 0.50cal). The rear section of the vehicle houses the 11 infantrymen, with 5 per sitting on each of the 2 bench’s facing inwards (this means there are no external firing ports) with the 11th man on a single seat behind the vehicle commanders position.

M58 Wolf Smoke Generator Carrier – The M58 is an upgraded Smoke Generator Carrier. The M58 will incorporate the turbine powered Large Area M56 smoke generator Obscuration System inside a RISE upgraded M113A3.

The Large Area Obscuration System is capable of generating both visual and infrared-defeating obscurant clouds. Without refuelling or re-supplying obscurant material, the M58 is capable of continuously producing 90 minutes of visual and 30 minutes of Infrared (IR) screens. The total Army Acquisition Objective (AAO) for the M58 Smoke Generator is 350 systems.

M113 AMEV Armoured Medical Evacuation Vehicle – Improvements in medical capabilities include an on-board oxygen production unit, a medical suction system, improved litter configuration, and provisions for a medical mentoring system.

M106 107mm Mortar Carrier – features a welded-in cross beam, additional floor support structures to withstand mortar reaction forces, and an enlarged three-piece top firing hatch. The 120mm weapon has a 90 traverse for firing over the rear of the vehicle.

The base plate for the mortar is mounted externally on the left side of the vehicle for use when firing the mortar dismounted. Vehicle carries 69 ready rounds.

M125 81mm Mortar Carrier – features a welded-in cross beam, additional floor support structures to withstand mortar reaction forces, and an enlarged three-piece top firing hatch. The 120mm weapon has a 90 traverse for firing over the rear of the vehicle.

The base plate for the mortar is mounted externally on the left side of the vehicle for use when firing the mortar dismounted. Vehicle carries 69 ready rounds.

M132 Flamethrower vehicle – No longer in service.

M163 20mm Vulcan Air-Defence System – The gun fires at 3,000 rounds per minute in short bursts of 10, 30, 60, or 100 rounds, or it can fire in continuous fire mode at a rate of 1,000 rounds per minute. In the M163 a linkless feed system is used, in the M167 (towed) linked ammunition is used.

In 1984 the improved PIVADS (Product-Improved VADS) system was introduced, providing improvements in the ease of use and accuracy of fire, but the limitations of the 20x102mm calibre remained. Eventually the M48 and M163 were both replaced in US service by the M1097 Avenger and the M6 Linebacker (M2 Bradley with FIM-92 Stinger missiles instead of the standard TOW anti-tank missiles): the Stinger missile providing the necessary range to deal with helicopters with anti-tank missiles far outranging the 20mm gun, as well as considerably extending the reach against fixed-wing targets.

In US and Israeli service the VADS has rarely been needed in its intended purpose of providing defence against aerial threats – consequently the Vulcan gun system was in use throughout the late 80’s and early 90’s primarily as a ground support weapon.

M548 Cargo carrier – equipped with a rear cargo bed it provides transportation of ammunition and general cargo to forward areas in support of field units. The vehicle is capable of carrying a six-ton payload and four men sitting abreast in its cab.

M557 Command and Control Vehicle – Used as an operational staff office and command post. The vehicle has an enlarged superstructure to carry additional radios and a generator. Vehicle commander has a hatch in the structures roof. There is currently an upgrade program to the M1068 (see below).

M579 fitter and repair vehicle – This vehicle is equipped with a crane & was not taken into US Army service.

M806 Repair and recovery vehicle – Equipped with an internal winch and two earth anchors mounted on the rear hull.

M730 Guided Missile Equipment Carrier (Chaparral) – This lightweight carrier is a product improved version of the M730A1 that is used to transport the Improved (and heavier) M54A2 Chaparral Aerial Intercept Guided Missile pallet. Approximately 500 M730A1 systems were converted to M730A2 RISE.

M901 Improved TOW vehicle – The BGM-71 TOW is an anti-tank guided missile. “TOW” stands for “Tube-launched, Optically-tracked, Wire data link, guided missile”. A dual launcher is mounted on the commanders hatch, which can traverse and be elevated so that it is lowered to the roof hatches so the crew can reload the launcher. The tracking system of enemy vehicles has a day and night channels in the sight. Over 3200 have been built for the US and export, in A2 and RISE models. The most modern TOW missiles have a range of 3750m.

M981 Fire Support Team Vehicle – The M981 FISTV greatly enhances the ability of the Field Artillery FIST to provide support to manoeuvre units. It enables the FIST headquarters to acquire and laser targets for terminally guided munitions and to coordinate fire support for the manoeuvre unit within a protective armoured environment. The vehicle has a M113 chassis, with a laser target designator mounted on the top of the vehicle. Inside the vehicle there are 6 AN/GRC-160 radio sets as well as a AN/VRC-46 radio set. Two digital message devices are also integrated into the vehicle in order to review, edit, and forward calls for fire from the FO to the appropriate fire support asset.

The M981 transports a G/VLLD. The turret is designed to resemble that of the M901, making the vehicle less conspicuous to enemy gunners. The FIST-V has secure voice and digital communication capability.

M1059 Lynx Smoke Generator Carrier – Produces 90 minutes of mobile, visual obscuration without refuelling One platoon (6 systems) can screen a 1 km x 5 km area Uses any standard Army fuel (including diesel, JP4, JP8, MOGAS) Can operate -25°F to 120°F at altitudes up to 8,000 ft. The M157 Smoke Generator Set was originally fielded in 1986 and provided the Army with its first mobile smoke generator capability. A total of 323 M157 SGSs and 276 M1059 SGCs were fielded.

M1064 Self-propelled 120mm Mortar – features a welded-in cross beam, additional floor support structures to withstand mortar reaction forces, and an enlarged three-piece top firing hatch. The 120mm weapon has a 90 traverse for firing over the rear of the vehicle.

The base plate for the mortar is mounted externally on the left side of the vehicle for use when firing the mortar dismounted. Vehicle carries 69 ready rounds.

M1068 Standard Integrated Command Post System (SICPS) Carrier – The M1068 Carrier is the RISE powered version of the M1068. A variant of the M577A3, it was modified for the next generation of automated command and control through the Army Tactical Command and Control System (ATCCS).

About two thirds of the U.S. M577A2 fleet will be converted to either M1068A3 or M1068 (Basic) configurations.

The M1068A3 has a crew of 4: commander; driver; and two command post operators. In addition to mounting provisions for the ATCCS hardware, vehicle modifications include an improved 5 KW Auxiliary Power Unit (APU), a power/data distribution system, and a ten meter antenna mast.

M1108 Universal Carrier – The system is based on a modified hull from an M113A2 or M113A3 which has been cut and “stretched” an additional 34.25 inches and given a sixth set of road wheels. Utilizing the hard-skinned M113 hull as the basis for the new carrier provides the payload with greater side and bottom protection than can be found on many alternative missile and cargo platforms. In addition, the XM1108 utilizes the crew compartment from the current M993 Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS) carrier. The cab provides the 3 man crew with the same level of ballistic protection found inside the M113A3 armoured personnel carrier.

The XM1108 chassis has a maximum payload capacity of 15,700 pounds.

Operators Of The US M113 APC Series & Family Variants

Argentina – estimated 520 to 580
Australia – estimated 700 to 766
Bahrain – estimated 110
Belgium – estimated 110 of original 500+
Bolivia – estimated 50+
– estimated 584
– 289 of original 1143
Chile – estimated 427
Columbia – estimated 120
Denmark – estimated 600
– estimated 2000
Germany – estimated 4000 being replaced by wheeled vehicles
Greece – estimated 1700+
– estimated 200
Iraq – 233 (new army)
Israel – estimated 5500 to 6000+
Italy – 3000+ built, few in service in specialist roles
Jordan – estimated 1000+
South Korea – 400
Kuwait – 60 of original 230
Lebanon – estimated 1100+
– estimated 350+ few in service in specialist roles
– estimated 300 to 600+
Netherlands – retired
New Zealand – retired and replaced by the 8×8 NZLAV
Norway – estimated 900
Pakistan – estimated 1600+
Philippines – estimated 100+
Saudi Arabia – estimated 3000
Singapore – estimated 1000+
– Retired
Switzerland – estimated 580 in service
Taiwan – estimated 650 in varying roles
Thailand – estimated 400
Tunisia – 140
Turkey – estimated 3000+
USA – 6000 currently I service alongside the Bradley (also built by FMC)
Vietnam – Supplied to Southern Forces in the Vietnam War and captured by the North
Yemen – estimated 670

Australian Service

Australia saw the M113 enter service during the 1960’s with some 750+ being delivered in time for service with Aussie forces in the Vietnam War. The most common variant is the M113A1 and by 2005 only 520 remained in service.
A plan approved in the late 1990s involved a “minimum upgrade” of 537 vehicles from 1996-1998, at a cost of about A$ 40 million.

There are 7 variants of the upgraded M113AS4 family being produced under LAND 106. Enhancements are being made to a variety of areas.

Protection: Add-on external armour kits to protect against weapons up to 14.5mm; internal spall liners; hull reinforcement to improve mine protection; fuel tanks moved from inside to outside. The change in configuration also allowed the introduction of stealth characteristics into the design by decreasing the overall turret profile, and reducing the vehicle’s radar cross-section and infra-red signature.

Firepower: A new Australian designed and built electrical turret, with improvements designed to lessen the battering its occupant takes. It will host a new .50 calibre weapon that sports a quick change barrel and day/night sights.

Mobility: Replacement of the engine, transmission, drive train and driver’s controls. To maximize the benefits of this new driveline, the suspension, track and road wheels are also being replaced.

Internal: Compartment improvements like heat mitigation measures and better stowage of equipment externally where it isn’t so much in the way. New electrical and fuel systems; a land navigation system that combines GPS and INS.

Armoured Personnel Carrier (M113-AS4 APC). Most common variant.
Armoured Fitters (M113-AS4 AF). Includes a new Hiab crane with a significantly enhanced 2.4-tonne lift at 4 meters. 38 planned of 350.
Armoured Recovery Vehicle Light (M806-AS4 ARVL). Includes a Sepson winch capable of a 13-tonne single line pull. 12 planned of 350.
Armoured Ambulance (M113-AS4 AA)
Armoured Command Vehicle (M113-AS4 ACV)
Armoured Logistic Vehicle (M113-AS4 ALV)
Armoured Mortar (M125-AS3 AM)

However in March 2009 the Australian National Audit Office (ANAO) issued a report “Management of the M113 Armoured Personnel Carrier Upgrade Project.” The 2009 ANAO report praises progress in a number of problem areas that were highlighted in the 2005 report. The 2007 renegotiation and restructuring has helped the program make significant progress in key areas, from management, to technical development. Having said that:

“The M113 Major Upgrade Project commenced in July 2002 and has suffered a series of delays. Army has so far received 42 of the 350 vehicles to be upgraded [which is behind schedule]…. In July 2008, the Prime Contractor informed Defence that the existing production facilities at Bandiana, Victoria, were not adequate to the task and, at December 2008, there was a potential shortfall of around 100 upgraded vehicles by December 2010.

The backlog is caused chiefly by delays in extending the hulls. This is proving to be more complex than anticipated, and is taking longer than expected….. would not be able to deliver 350 upgraded vehicles by December 2010. Defence is currently negotiating arrangements with the Prime Contractor….”

Belgium Service

Belgium M113A1

BMF from Belgium has built the M113A1 with some modifications (suspension of M113A2, NBC protection system etc) under license as the M113A1-B. The Belgian army received 525 vehicles from 1982.

M113A1-B-ATK – Basic APC version with M2HB .50cal machine gun. This type is no longer used and most have been modified into new versions.
M113A1-B-Amb – Ambulance with room for 4 litters. This type is unarmed but is fitted with six 76mm smoke grenade launchers.
M113A1-B-CP – Command post vehicle that retains the low roofline of the basic version.
M113A1-B-ENG – Squad vehicle for combat engineers. Some of those 113 delivered are fitted with an hydraulic dozerblade.
M113A1-B-TRG – Driver trainer.
M113A1-B-MIL – Tank hunter with pintle-mounted MILAN and two 71mm Lyran mortars. All 56 vehicles have been modified into artillery FO vehicles.
M113A1-B-Mor – The original version was used to carry the 4.2″ mortar M30 but all 35 vehicles have been upgraded to tow the 120mm Thompson-Brandt mortar MO-120-RT.
M113A1-B-MT – Maintenance vehicle with folding work table on the right rear.
M113A1-B-MTC – Maintenance vehicle with hydraulic HIAB crane. Similar to the M579.
M113A1-B-Rec – recovery vehicle with heavy internal winch. Similar to M806.
M113A1-B-SCB – Carrier vehicle for mast-mounted battlefield surveillance (Surveillance de Champ de Bataille) radar EL/M-2130A.
M113A1-B-TACP – Modified command post vehicle for dedicated TACP missions.
M113A1-B-VW – Former MILAN carrier that is now used by artillery forward observers. It retains the .50cal machine gun on the 3rd cupola behind the driver, but the commander’s cupola has the MILAN post replaced by a portable laser range finder MLR-N61.

Canadian Service

The M113 is being refurbished and upgraded into nine new variants of mechanized support vehicles. The role of the new M113 variants is to provide the Army with combat support and combat service support vehicles to augment the new LAV III fleet. A total of 289 vehicles are being upgraded. The remaining M113s will be declared surplus.

This vehicle was originally used as a mechanized infantry section carrier. The first versions were purchased in the mid-1960’s; the last were delivered in 1991. A total of 1,143 vehicles were ordered during this period.

The scope of the upgrade includes new engines, transmissions and drive trains; the provision of add-on armour; and the stretching of 147 vehicles to increase their capacity and mobility. The M113’s original power pack provided a maximum of 210 horsepower, which limited the mobility and carrying capacity of the vehicle. A new power pack will be installed in all the refurbished vehicles, which will provide a maximum of 400 horsepower. In addition to increasing mobility and cargo capacity, this upgrade in power will also allow an upgraded armour package to be installed on the vehicle. This will greatly enhance the protection afforded to Army soldiers deployed on overseas missions.

Delivery of the upgraded M113s started in 2001, and will continue in stages. Final delivery will be complete by 2006. It is anticipated that the upgraded M113s will be in service until 2020.

The following nine variants will be fielded:

M113A3 Personnel carrier with Remote Weapon System (RWS)
M113A3 Personnel carrier with One Metre Turret
M113A3 Mobile Repair Team
M577A3 Command Post
MTVL Basic Personnel Carrier / Light Re-supply
MTVC Heavy Re-supply
MTVE Engineer Vehicle
MTVF Fitter (Repair) Vehicle
MTVR Recovery Vehicle

German Service


During the Cold War, West Germany was supplied with the M113 and M113A1 which were known as M113G and M113A1G. Most of them were later upgraded to A2 standard and got the new designator M113A2 GE.

Those vehicles were fitted with the new SEM-80/90 radio sets are known as M113A2 EFT GE A0. Under the NDV-2 program, some vehicles had been fitted with a new MTU engine, new steering and brake systems etc. German M113s often have a bank of eight 76mm smoke grenade dischargers at the front of the vehicle, and are armed with Rheinmetall MG3s instead of the more common M2 .50 calibre machine gun. The German Army uses the type not only as APC (MTW – Mannschaftstransportwagen) but in many different specialized roles:

Fahrschulpanzer – Driver trainer.
FlgLtPz (Fliegerleitpanzer) – Vehicle for forward air controlers (FAC). (discharged)
RiFuMuxPz (Trägerfahrzeug Richtfunk Multiplex) – Direction finding station (discharged)
SchrFuTrpPz VHF-HF (Schreibfunktrupppanzer) – Signals vehicle.
TrFzRechnVbuArt (Trägerfahrzeug Rechner-Verbund Artillerie) – Artillery computer vehicle.
FüFlSt (Führungs-Feuerleitstelle) – Fire direction center for artillery units, equipped with the PzH 2000.
BeobPzArt (Beobachtungspanzer Artillerie) – Artillery forward observer vehicle with raised roofline and PERI D-11 periscope. (discharged)
FltPzArt (Feuerleitpanzer Artillerie) – Artillery fire direction vehicle.
FltPzMrs (Feuerleitpanzer Mörser) – Fire direction vehicle for mortar units. (discharged)
FüFuPz (Führungs- und Funkpanzer) – Signals and command vehicle. (discharged)
KrKw (Krankenwagen) – Ambulance. (to be displaced by Boxer MRAV)
PzMrs (Panzermörser) – Mortar carrier with Tampella 120mm and 63 rounds. (discharged)
TrFz ABRA (Trägerfahrzeug) – Carrier vehicle for DR-PC 1a RATAC radar. (to be displaced by BÜR (ground surveillance radar system, based on Dingo 2))
TrFz Green Archer (Trägerfahrzeug) – Carrier vehicle for Green Archer artillery location radar. (discharged)
Waran – Upgrade developed by FFG. Has the same improvement as the NDV-2 versions, but is additionally fitted with a longer hull and improved suspension with 6 road wheels on each side. Also known as M113 King Size.

Israeli Service

Its official IDF name is the “Bardelas”. They first arrived in Israel in 1972, although most APC’s of this type were acquired through American aid in the 1973 Yom Kippur War. The M113 was intended to replace the antiquated armoured vehicles which the IDF was using at the time, which were partly exposed, and were an easy target for hostile fire.

The IDF M113 has undergone various upgrades, in order to improve its resistance to hazardous materials, and to protect it from anti-tank fire, IED’s, and machine gun fire:


Zelda – Stand off armour was mounted externally to the hull, thou it wasn’t bar (AKA cage) armour used to detonate RPG-7’s, it was perforated steel plate (you can see the small holes drilled in it) so as to offer protection against high calibre MG rounds, but reduces the weight of the armour so as to have a least negative effect on the vehicles mobility.

Zelda 2

Zelda 2 – Introduced during the 1990’s, it has seen the vehicle covered in a sophisticated sloped Explosive Reactive Armour suite, with a small armoured structure on the vehicle commanders hatch.

L-VAS – The Land systems division of IMI has developed the Light Vehicle Armour System, which would appear to be an appliqué modular armour system covering the front and sides of the vehicle.


Kasman – the vehicle has some type of appliqué or stand off armour covering it with further bar armour covering it and the larger observation structure on top of the vehicle.

Among the many special models of the APC is the armoured ambulance, a version with additional protection against anti-tank missiles. Changes have been made which enable it to participate in urban warfare, and to keep the peace. The APC serves in almost all of the combat units of the IDF, in virtually all of the action areas, alongside other advanced APC’s.

As time progresses, the M113 is slowly leaving the front lines, being replaced by more advanced models, and is joining the reservist units.

Italian Service

Italian Firm Oto Melara is a licensed manufacturer of the American M113 APC series for the Italian Armed Forces and international sales.

ARISGATOR aka ARISGATOR/VAL aka VAL – ARIS (Applicazioni Rielaborazioni Impianti Speciali) is an Italian Firm specialising in defence and special vehicle upgrades. The company has produced a modular kit for the M113 and VCC-1 (Italian upgraded M113) to give the vehicles a full amphibious capability, so that it can now be used in ship to shore landings called the ARISGATOR. It has a distinct front boat shop module, new rear propellers for propulsion and navigation capabilities for open sea. This kit weighs between 1,350 and 1,700 kg. The first prototype was completed in 1997. ARISGATOR is in service with the Italian Navy Landing Forces under the name of VAL (Light Amphibious Vehicle).

Download spec sheet from ARIS website

VCC-1 aka AIFV & VCC-2 – The Italian improved version over the M113A1, designated the VCC-1 saw an increase in firepower, improved armour protection, the infantry’s ability to aim and fire their weapons from inside the hull and improved seating arrangements. Click Here to view dedicated page

Norwegian Service

NM135 – Norway has operated the M113 since 1964. It was fitted with a 20mm cannon and initially bought as a Self Propelled Anti-Aircraft Gun, but instead used as the principal APC designated the NM113. It had coax 7.62mm MG and a 71mm grenade launcher could be fired from within.

Norway bought several batches of the decades of M113 and as the CV90 IFV was introduced (CV9030N) the vehicle was phased out. However a number of specialist roles remain in service according to the Norwegian Army website: anti-aircraft, support, repair, command, transport, ambulance, fire control, engineer and communications.

Norway has also been running “Project 5026” bring these up to the M113F3 (or F3 after their NM designation). The most recent documents (2008) state so far the Artillery Fire control variant and ambulance variant have been bought up to M113F3 standard, which has spall liners, mine protection and new belts reducing noise, less vibration and a lower fuel consumption. Over 300 vehicles are in service.

Singapore Service

The Singapore Army has operated the M113 since 1976. These were bought up to the A2 standard and later modernised in to 2 versions in 1999 by ST Kinetics:

M113 Ultra Ows – Fitted with a Overhead Weapons Station, which has a 25mm Bushmaster cannon and a coaxial 7.62mm MG, it also has improved armour. 50 are in service. Crew consists of driver, commander in the OWS and 7 troops in the rear.

M113 Ultra 40 / 50 – CIS weapons station mounted with a .50 cal Machine Gun and a 40mm belt fed Grenade Launcher., it also has improved armour. 950 are in service. Crew consists of driver, commander in the CIS and 9 troops in the rear.

View spec sheet on Singapore army website

M113A2 Ultra Igla – The 9K38 Igla is a Russian infrared homing surface-to-air missile (SAM), which is operated by over 30 countries including Singapore. The Ultra has been fitted with a launcher with 6 ready to fire Igla SAM and a second identical version which has a tracking radar and can relay targets to the later. These 2 vehicles are used by the Republic of Singapore Air Force short range air defence.

Combat History

The Vietnam War – Operated by US, Australian and South Vietnamese Forces.

The Yom Kippur War – Israeli Defence Forces

Operation Peace for Galileen – Israeli Defence Forces

1982 Lebanon War – Israeli Defence Forces

Invasion of Panama – US Forces

1991 Gulf War – US Forces and Arab Forces

2003 Invasion of Iraq – US Forces

2006 Lebanon War – Israeli Defence Forces